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Juozas Tumas also known by the pen name Vai? He was a prolific writer, editor of nine periodicals, university professor, and member of numerous societies and organizations. His most notable works of fiction include the novel Pragiedruliai Cloud Clearing and the narrative D? Born fhrestomatija a family of Lithuanian peasants, Tumas chrestonatija educated at a gymnasium in Daugavpils present-day Latvia and Kaunas Priest Seminary. He began contributing to the Lithuanian press, then banned by the Tsarist authoritiesin or Chtestomatija was ordained as a priest in and posted to Mitau present-day JelgavaLatvia.
Inhe was reassigned to Mos? There he organized the publication of T? His brother Jonas was caught with the banned publications and was sentenced to three years in prison and two years of exile. Due to his Lithuanian activities and short temper, Tumas quarreled with his superiors and was frequently moved to increasingly more remote parishes.
However, inbishops of Samogitia and Vilnius agreed to allow Tumas to move to Vilnius to work as an editor of the daily Vilniaus? He edited the newspaper only for a couple of months but remained in Vilnius as editor of Viltisco-founded with Antanas Smetona.
This new cultural newspaper hoped to elektdonin conservative Catholic clergy and more liberal intelligentsia for the common good of the Lithuanian nation. After publishing an article critical of the Diocese of Vilnius for suppressing the Lithuanian language in favor of the Polish languageTumas was exiled to Lai? Intogether with Konstantinas Ol? Inas cherstomatija of the founders of the Party of National Progresshe attended political conferences in PetrogradKievand Stockholm advocating for full independence of Lithuania.
He returned to Chrestkmatija inbut moved to Kaunas after the chestomatija was captured by Poland. He edited Tautapublished by the Party of National Progress, and ran in the elections to the Constituent Assembly of Elemtroninbut largely withdrew from politics when he was not elected.
He became rector of the Church of Vytautas the Great and organized its reconstruction. From tohe taught a course on the Lithuanian literature during the elekyronin of the Lithuanian press ban at the University of Lithuania. Tumas published several works on writers’ biographies and amassed a large collection of material manuscripts, correspondence, photos, etc. On the basis of this material, he organized a literary archive at the university.
Tumas was born in the village of Malei? Tumas was born at midday of the Nativity of Mary O. His mother, aged 45, took all this as a sign that he should become a priest.
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Nevertheless, in fallhe managed to pass entrance exams to the gymnasium in Daugavpils which accepted about 50 students out of applicants. During this time he developed an interest in Russian classic literature, particularly biographies and memoirs.
After graduation, Tumas had to choose university or priest seminary. He doubted his calling for priesthood and considered studying veterinary in Saint Petersburg.
It became known as the Society of Saint Casimir when one of its members obtained relics of Saint Casimirthe patron saint of Lithuania. Due to a bout of tuberculosisTumas interrupted his studies in early and returned to his native Malei? During that time, he continued to write for? During the summerElektonin traveled to Mos? Tumas was first sent by the Diocese of Samogitia as vicar to Mitau elekktronin JelgavaLatviaaway from Lithuanian-speaking areas.
However, Mitau already had a vicar, who moved from Il? Therefore, Tumas received a very cold welcome from local priests. He received a reply in a week, but did not get a new posting until four months later. In summerTumas was assigned as a vicar and a teacher of religion to Mos? Tumas almost single-handedly edited the magazine from the December to the April-May issue.
While it was a Catholic publication, it was relatively more liberal than? It attempted to reconcile the Catholic dogma with the Lithuanian National Revival. In OctoberTumas’ brother Jonas was arrested in Priekul? His brother, caught red handed, could not avoid the punishment and served three years in the Kresty Prison and two years of exile in Bessarabia.
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In AugustTumas was transferred to Kuliai. It was a convenient location for Tumas’ illegal work – it was remote but also close to the Prussia-Russia border – and he organized a distribution point for the banned Lithuanian press. A local farmer would smuggle the books across the border, Tumas would hide them in the large clergy house until book smugglers such as Jonas Kriki?
To that end, he published five issues of? It was a cultural, not political magazine. A surviving list of books owned by Tumas in shows books, acquired since The list did not include any of the illegal Lithuanian publications and thus should be longer.
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Insomeone wrote an angry article to? They wrote complaints to bishop Paliulionis. One of the complains elekrtonin a translation of a short catechism by Roch Filochowski published by Tumas in with counterfeited publication data supposedly, published in at the Zawadzki Press in Vilnius.
The complaint protested that the catechism also counterfeited its approbation supposedly, by bishop Motiejus Valan? He was to cease activities not directly related to his clerical duties and was prohibited from printing anything or traveling anywhere without an approval of the bishop.
Tumas, isolated in Vadakt? For example, inhe published a translation of an invitation to the Lithuanian nobility to join the National Revival by Adomas Jak? The outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War forced the Tsarist government to make concessions to ethnic minorities and the Lithuanian press ban was lifted in April He published a call in Vilniaus? He delivered a speech promoting non-violent resistance to the Tsarist regime and cited the example of Finland. Tumas returned to Vadakt?
Upon learning of such activities, bishop Paliulionis urgently reassigned Tumas to Sidabravas in December and to Stakiai in March He chreetomatija also arrested before moving to Stakiai, but released on bail. He enlisted the clergy to help the newspaper and they searched for a new editor among the priests.
Reluctantly, bishops Paliulionis and von der Ropp agreed to transfer Tumas to Vilnius to work on the newspaper. He was promised a monthly salary of 75 rublesbut he was hesitant to take the offer. It would not be socialist, eldktronin it would treat all social classes equally. It would defend the Catholic faith as the foundation of the order and morality and the Lithuanian nation as an equal to others.
During that short time, Tumas wrote many articles on various topics, including on eletkronin, art, economy. While Smetona was influential setting the ideology, he had a full-time job at the Vilnius Land Bank and thus Tumas handled most of the day-to-day workings of the publication.
Tumas wrote reviews of literary and scientific works. Tumas chrestomatij also active in Lithuanian cultural life in Vilnius. He was a board member of the Lithuanian Scientific Society and gifted some of his personal book collection to its new library.
He contrasted the celebration, attended by many dignitaries, with Estonian and Latvian Song Festivals and concluded that the Grunwald celebration did not sufficiently involve all social classes. The Polish press responded by attacking Tumas and accusing him of anti-Polish attitudes. Viltis had a permanent column to report on the situation of Lithuanian Catholics in the Diocese of Vilnius and in particular on their fight for the Lithuanian-language church services.
Various Lithuanian groups sent letters protesting the removal of Tumas-Vai? Tumas arrived to Lai? Just three months later, in May, priest Konstantinas Ol? Society which organized Lithuanian schools in the Kovno Governorate. However, he refused in part due to debts and ill health. He did participate in the Duma elections, helping to elect Lithuanian candidates, including Martynas Y?
He also nursed his nephew Kazys M? He collected his previous works, edited them for style and language, and published in chrestomatijx Lithuanian newspapers hoping to publish them as separate booklets. Tumas contributed his best works to Vairas with only a few submissions to Viltis. Bikinas edited news and political articles, while Tumas edited articles on cultural and societal matters. Tumas and others organized refugee relief – opening shelters and soup kitchens, providing clothes and basic medical care, finding employment.
Tumas and Pranas Ma? In five months, Lithuanians in Riga raised 10, rubles and helped some 4, refugees. Lithuanians became more politically active, particularly after the February Revolutionworking to secure Lithuania’s future after the war.
In FebruaryTumas was elected to the Council of the Lithuanian Nationwhich aspired to become an authoritative body that could represent all Lithuanians and their political objectives. Tumas and other members of his party called for full independence.
Lithuanians, represented by nine men, including Augustinas Voldemaras and Antanas Tum? The conference approved the resolution adopted by the Vilnius Conferencerecognized the Council of Lithuania as the legitimate representative of the Lithuanian nation, and reiterated Lithuania’s desire for full independence.
The required paperwork took seven months and Tumas devoted most of his time to writing Pragiedruliai. Tumas returned to Vilnius in May He started writing articles for Lietuvos aidas Echo of Lithuaniaelketronin taking over as editor from Petras Klimasand attending the sessions of the Council of Lithuania as a guest. He was a member of the Lithuanian delegation elsktronin Vincas Kapsukasleader of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republicin attempt to find a modus vivendi.
In his articles, he harshly criticized the new Polish administration, in particular before it enforced censorship.