After the commissioning of the world’s first two LD steel plants in Linz and Donawitz, the LD process soon gained a foothold elsewhere. The Austrian steel. LD process. 1. By ARI MGIT; 2. The name LD stands for Linz and Donawitz, these were the two places in Austria where the. A process for making steel from cast iron; it resembles the Bessemer process except for two important differences: (1) oxygen is used rather than air and (2).

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InHenry Bessemer patented a steelmaking process involving oxygen blowing for decarbonizing molten iron UK Patent No.

Modern converters have a fixed bottom with plugs for dlnawitz purging. Retrieved from ” https: In the Soviet Union, some experimental production of steel using the process was done inbut industrial use was hampered by lack of efficient technology to produce liquid oxygen.

In this, high-pressure oxygen is blown at the molten pig iron using a water-cooled lance. The Linz-Donawitz Process” in the subject line. Procss the twentieth century: Pattern welding Damascus steel Crucible steel Tatara furnace Cementation process.

SchwartzBelgian John Miles and Swiss Durrer and Heinrich Heilbrugge engineers proposed their versions of oxygen-blown steelmaking, but only Durrer and Heilbrugge lin it to mass-scale production. Basic oxygen steelmaking is a primary steelmaking process for converting the molten pig iron into steel by blowing oxygen through a lance over the molten pig iron inside the converter.


Between andlabor requirements in the industry decreased by a factor of 1, from more than three man-hours per metric ton to just 0. In the original LD process oxygen was blown over the top of the molten iron through the water-cooled nozzle of a vertical lance. Electro-slag remelting Vacuum arc remelting Argon oxygen decarburization. Smelting Bloomery produces sponge iron Blast furnace produces pig iron Cold blast Hot blast Anthracite iron Direct reduced iron. Send an e-mail to innovation voestalpine.

This ship proved to all critics that LD steel was the ideal material for shipbuilding.

Slagless lances, with donawigz long tapering copper tip, have been employed to avoid jamming of the lance during blowing. Oxford University Press US. United States Steel Corporation.

Bloomery produces sponge iron Blast furnace produces pig iron Cold blast Hot blast Anthracite iron Direct reduced iron. History of Industrial Gases First ed. Less expensive to produce and much purer than previously used steels, LD steel completely satisfied shipowners and shipbuilders.

The First Commercial Linz-Donawitz Basic Oxygen Converter (Pig Iron to Steel)

This was an important and major event for everyone involved, and also the start of the triumphant advance of the LD process: It then has to be converted into steel which has controlled quantities of carbon and much reduced concentrations of impurities. However, this was solved by adding ferromanganese to the melt.

The LD process quickly attracted international interest, and new marketing channels were developed. His invention nearly failed in that some of proceas iron ores used by those who applied the idea found the iron to contain larger pinz of sulphur and phosphorus, leading to very poor properties.


Post-combustion lance tips burn the CO generated during blowing into CO 2 and provide additional heat. The big American steelmakers caught up late with the new technology; the first oxygen converters in the United States were launched at the end of by McLouth Steel in Trenton, Michiganwhich accounted for less than 1 per cent of the national steel market. The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel: In other projects Wikimedia Commons.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. This was virtually the start in international industrial plant building, which went on to become one of voestalpine’s main businesses. And just over a year later, on Decemberthe “M.

Basic oxygen steelmaking

The process is fast donzwitz of the use of donaaitz pure oxygen, and generates large quantities of heat which can be exploited to add scrap steel to the melt. Modern furnaces will take a charge of iron of up to tons [4] and convert it into steel in less than 40 minutes, compared to 10—12 hours in an open hearth furnace. Austrian inventions Metallurgical processes Steelmaking Swiss inventions.

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