In , J.C.R. Licklider published his groundbreaking paper called “Man- Computer Symbiosis.” Licklider was both a psychologist and a. J.C.R. Licklider (). Excerpts from “Man-computer Symbiosis”. IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, volume HFE-1, pp (now IEEE). J.C.R. Licklider may well be one of the most influential people in the history of In two extraordinary papers, Man-Computer Symbiosis () and The.

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Messbarger – Short-Biography of J. A Content Analysis of Citations to J. Yet there is continuing interest in the idea of talking with computing machines.

Perhaps my spectrum is not typical–I hope it is not, but I fear it is. Perhaps the best outcome is partial symbiosis or intelligence augmentation.

Fuchs-Kittowski – Social Informatics: The main suggestion conveyed by the findings just described is that the operations that fill most of the time allegedly devoted to technical thinking are operations that can be performed more effectively by machines than by men.

Licklider,” at URL https: By and large, in generally available computers, however, there is almost no provision for any more effective, immediate man-machine communication than can be achieved with an electric typewriter.

Man-Computer Symbiosis

At the end of the argument is a special “end-of-argument” marker. Computers “naturally” speak nonredundant languages, usually with only two elementary symbols and no inherent appreciation either of unitary objects or of coherent actions. For real-time interaction on a truly symbiotic level, however, a vocabulary of about words, e.

How can anyone use language effectively to grasp the complexities of the universe? This cooperative “living together in intimate association, or even close union, of two dissimilar organisms” is called symbiosis [27].

That development would have a revolutionary effect upon stmbiosis design of computers. It will involve very close coupling between the human and the electronic members of the partnership. In one sense of course, any man-made system is intended to help man, to help a man or men outside the system.


In such a system, the speed of the computers would be balanced, and the cost of the gigantic memories and the sophisticated programs would be divided by the number of users. Then go to the second register, and pick up the address of the third, etc.

An Information Society for All? Such systems “humanly extended machines,” North might call them symbiosos not symbiotic systems. Perhaps future success will not be found by man or machine alone, but rather will be achieved by individuals who best know how to maximize the capabilities of technology to reach a desired end, cf.

They accurately provide game stats and player accomplishments for thousands of games across the U. Views Read Edit View history. Preliminary analyses indicate that the symbiotic partnership will perform intellectual operations much more effectively than man alone can perform them.

The larva of the insect lives in the ovary of the fig tree, and there it gets its food.

Man-Computer Symbiosis

People directly linked to smart machines can perhaps function better than people acting without such support. Aristotle said that formal knowledge begins with the establishment of definitions and proceeds to an analysis of various levels of cause-and-effect.

Perhaps the greater danger is the total dependency of a person on its computing machine. About 85 per cent of my “thinking” time was spent getting into a position to think, to make a decision, to learn something I needed to know.

He could even define new jcf, as Gilmore and Savell [14] have done at the Lincoln Laboratory, and present them directly to the computer. At least half of the problem of memory organization appears to reside in the storage procedure. That would be the case it; in gathering data on which to base a decision, for example, both the man and the computer came up with relevant precedents from experience and if the computer then suggested a course mwn action that agreed with the man’s intuitive judgment.

The second point is that a very important section of memory will be permanent: Our relationships with our computers may be more one-sided and less symbiotic than Licklider described.


The large display should be supplemented, according to most symniosis those who have thought about the problem, by individual display-control units. Displays seem to be in a somewhat better state than controls. The Artificial Intelligence Debate. The capabilities of machines in this class are increasing almost daily. According to BardiniLicklider envisioned a future time when machine cognition cerebration would surpass and become independent of human direction, as a basic stage of development within human evolution.

There will nevertheless be a fairly long interim during which the main intellectual advances will be made by men and computers working together in intimate association. Other problems simply cannot be formulated without computing-machine aid. If we focus upon the human operator within the system, however, we see that, in some areas of technology, a fantastic change has taken place during the last few years. Perhaps an integrated thinking machine will be like the bacteria, the probiotics, that live in people and help digest food and provide other benefits.

The consideration that holds back such an effort, apparently, computeg that the effort would produce nothing that would be of great value in the context of existing computers. Diffusing the Intergalactic Network,” The text continues to identify ways in which theoretically active computers would function in ways including; to interpolateextrapolateconvert static equations or logical statements into dynamic models see also conceptual models.

Licklider Describes “Man-Computer Symbiosis” :

Hopefully, the computer will expedite the finding, delivering, and returning of books. In short, it seems worthwhile to avoid argument with other enthusiasts for artificial intelligence by conceding dominance in the distant future of cerebration symbiosie machines alone. Licklider and Welden Clark August It is to bring computing machines effectively into processes of thinking that must go on in “real time,” time that moves too fast to permit using computers in conventional ways.